First Aid is the immediate treatment given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness before medical help is obtained.
- Preserve life
- Promote recovery
- Prevent worsening of casualty’s condition.
- To know the details of injuries and their nature based on the following.
- Story of the accident
- Casualty tells the First Aider.(like pain, shivering etc.)
- First Aider observes on casualty (swelling, bleeding etc.)
- According to diagnosis – treat the casualty.
- Send to Hospital according to the condition of the casualty
- Look for the following at the time of attending accident or an emergency.
First, ensure no danger to the First Aider and look for the danger to the casualty.
If Danger is there remove the danger or the casualty to the safe place. This is the first step in the accident spot.
Response from the casualty, to check the conscious of casualty (calling, slapping, and pinching).
No response means the victim is unconscious.
(Wind pipe-Trachea).A block may be in airway like food particles or any other foreign body in the throat.The important danger is fall back of the tongue for unconscious casualty in the supine position.
Ensure open airway by cleaning the blocks in the throat and extend the neck by chin up method.
Check the breathing by looking the movement of the chest, listen the sound from the throat, and feel the warm air from the nose.
Check the pulse in the neck (carotid pulse) for the blood circulation
CPR-CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION:
- To revive lungs, give artificial respiration by mouth to mouth or mouth to nose twice.
- To revive heart, give external compression on the chest 30 times.
- Follow the above at the ratio of 2:30
- Give CPR until reaching the hospital or revival of heart and lungs.
- If the casualty’s heart and lungs start functioning, immediately turn the casualty into RECOVERY POSITION (turn to one side-better to right ) to avoid falling back on the tongue. Then transport to the hospital.
- Very important point-if any casualty is unconscious turn to recovery position. ( face sideways.)
- Wrong transportation makes the causality at risk.(Supine position – face upwards.)
Very common cases are given here for the reference of the train guards which they come across very frequently.