In a permanent way, rails are joined either by welding or by using fish plates and are fixed with sleepers by using different types of fastenings. Sleepers are properly placed and packed with ballast. Ballast is placed in the prepared subgrade called formation.
PARTS OF A PERMANENT WAY:
- Fixture and Fastening
REQUIREMENTS FOR AN IDEAL PERMANENT WAY:
- The gauge should be uniform and correct
- Both the rails should be at the same level in a straight track
- On curves, proper superelevation should be provided to the outer rail
- The permanent way should be properly designed so the load of the train is uniformly distributed over the two rails.
- The track should have enough lateral strength.
- The radii and superelevation provided on curves should be properly designed.
- The track must have a certain amount of elasticity.
- All joints, points, and crossings should be properly designed.
- The drainage system of permanent way should be perfect.
- All the components of permanent way should satisfy the design requirements.
- It should have adequate provision for easy renewals and repairs.