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FUNCTIONS OF SLEEPERS:
- To hold the rails to proper gauge.
- To transfer the loads from rails to the ballast.
- To support and fix the rails in proper position.
- To keep the rails at a proper level in straight tracks and at proper superelevation on curves.
- To provide elastic medium between the rails and the ballast
- To provide stability to the permanent way on the whole.
REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD SLEEPERS:
- The sleepers should be sufficiently strong to act as a beam under loads.
- The sleepers should be economical.
- They should maintain correct gauge.
- They should provide sufficient bearing area for the rail.
- The sleepers should have sufficient weight for stability.
- Sleepers should facilitate easy fixing and take out of rails without disturbing them.
- They should facilitate easy removal and replacement of ballast.
- They should not be pushed out easily of their position in any direction under maximum forces of the moving trains.
- They should be able to resist impact and vibrations of moving trains.
They should be suitable for each type of ballast.
- If track-circuiting is done, it should be possible to insulate them from the rails
TYPES OF SLEEPERS:
- C.C. sleepers
- Prestressed concrete sleepers.