The system of Train Working:
Control Over movement of trains :
Basically, control over the movements of trains can be achieved by two methods.
- Time interval method
- Space interval method
Time Interval Method :
Movement of trains can be controlled and the adequate interval between two trains in the same direction can be maintained by dispatching the following train with sufficient time interval after the departure of the preceding one.
In this system, safety is not fully ensured. Since the driver has to ensure that the earlier train is moving forward and proceedings without stopping. This is a definite strain on the drivers he has to keep a continuous watch over the earlier train to avoid the collision.
- Further, this is not practicable in respect of Railways due to
- Different types of trains, viz., Goods, Passengers, Express trains.
- Different types of Powers / Locomotives.
- Different speeds of trains.
- Different haulage capacity of trains.
- The different braking capacity of locomotives.
- Different terrain.
- Different loads of trains.
- Different stoppages
Space Interval System:
Space Interval System is one in which, into a given length of the track only one train at a time is permitted to enter. Second on the subsequent train is permitted to enter the same length of the track, from one of the two sides, only after the first train has cleared the said track.
- Length of the track is divided into sections called Block Section.
- This ensures safety
- At the end of each Block section, there is a Block Section.
- Entry into each Block section is controlled through electrical block instruments and is protected by signals.
- Information is conveyed to the driver to proceed or stop by signals.
- The object of the Space Interval system is to preserve a definite interval of space between trains running on the same line.